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    寒食寄京師諸弟賞析


        韋應物詩集中收錄寄諸弟詩近二十首,可以看出他是一個手中情深的詩人。而正由于出自性情,發自胸臆,所以這首詩雖只是即景拈來,就事寫出,卻令人感到蘊含深厚,情意悠長。     就章法而言,這首詩看似平鋪直敘,順筆寫來,而針線極其綿密。詩的首句從近處著筆,實寫客中寒食的景色;末句從遠方落想,遙念故園寒食的景色。這一起一收,首尾呼應,緊扣詩題。中間兩句,一句暗示獨坐異鄉,一句明寫想念諸弟,上下綰合,承接自然。兩句中,一個“獨”字、一個“想”字,對全篇有穿針引線的妙用。第二句的“獨”字,既是上句“空”字的延伸,又是下句“想”字的伏筆;而第三句的“想”字,既由上句“獨”字生發,又統轄下句,直貫到篇末,說明杜陵青草之思是由人及物,由想諸弟而聯想及之。從整首詩看,它是句句相承,暗中鉤連,一氣流轉,渾然成章的。     在表面上,這首詩,除第三句直抒情意外,通篇寫景;而從四句之間的內在聯系看,正是這第三句在全詩中居主位,其余三句居賓位,一切雨中空齋、江上流鶯以及杜陵草青之景,都是圍繞第三句而寫的。王夫之在《夕堂永日緒論》中說:“無論詩歌與長行文字,俱以意為主。”又說:“詩文俱有主賓。無主之賓,謂之烏合。”這首詩的第三句,如他所說,是“立一主以待賓”。這樣,上下三句就不是烏合的無主之賓,“乃俱有情而相浹洽”。換言之,正因為詩人情深意真,在下筆時把“想諸弟”的情意貫串、融合在全詩之中,就使四句詩相互浹洽,成為一個極其和諧的整體。     當然,賓雖然不能無主,而主也不能無賓。這首詩的第三句又有賴于上兩句和下一句的烘托。這首詩的一、二兩句,看來不過如實寫出身邊景、眼前事,但也含有許多層次和曲折。第一句所寫景象,寒食禁火,萬戶無煙,本來已經夠蕭索的了,更逢陰雨,又在空齋,再加氣候與心情的雙重清冷,這樣一層加一層地寫足了環境氣氛。第二句同樣有多層意思,“江上”是一層,“流鶯”是一層,“坐聽”是一層,而“獨坐”又是一層。這句,本是隨換句而換景,既對春江,又聽流鶯,一變上句所寫的蕭索景象,但在本句中卻用一個“獨”字又折轉回來,在多層次中更顯示了曲折。兩句合起來,對第三句中表達的“想諸弟”之情起了層層烘染、反復襯托的作用。至于緊接在第三句后的結尾一句,把詩筆宕開,寄想象于故園的寒食景色,就更收烘托之妙,進一步托出了“想諸弟”之情,使人更感到情深意遠。     這首詩,運筆空靈,妙有含蓄,而主要得力于結尾一句。這個結句,就本句說是景中見情,就全篇說是以景結情,收到藏深情于行間、見風韻于篇外的藝術效果。它與王維《山中送別》詩“春草明年綠,王孫歸不歸”句,都取意于《楚辭。招隱士》“王孫游兮不歸,春草生兮萋萋”。但王維句是明寫,語意實;這一句是暗點,更顯得蘊藉有味。它既透露了詩人的歸思,也表達了對諸弟、對故園的懷念。這里,人與地的雙重懷念是交相觸發、融合為一的。                   (陳邦炎)

    韋應物的其它詩歌

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