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    九歌·湘夫人注釋


    (1)選自《楚辭章句》,為《九歌》中的一篇。《九歌》是屈原十一篇作品的總稱。“九”是泛指,非實數,《九歌》本是古樂章名。王逸《楚辭章句》認為:“昔楚目南郢之邑,沅湘之同,其俗信鬼而好祠。其祠必作歌樂鼓舞以樂諸神。屈原放逐,竄伏其間,杯憂苦毒,愁思沸郁,出見俗人祭祀之札,歌舞之樂,其辭鄙陋,因作《九歌》之曲,上陳事神之敬,下見已之冤結,托之以風諫。”也有人認為是屈原在民間祭歌的基礎上加工而成。此篇與《九歌》中另一篇《湘君》為姊妹篇。關于湘夫人和湘君為誰,多有爭論。二人為湘水之神,則無疑。此篇寫湘君企待湘夫人而不至,產生的思慕哀怨之情。(2)帝子:指湘夫人。舜妃為帝堯之女,故稱帝子。(3)眇眇(miǎo):望而不見的徉子。愁予:使我憂愁。(4)裊裊(niǎo): 微風吹拂的樣子 (5)波:生波。下:落。(6)薠:水草名,生湖澤間。騁望:縱目而望。(7)佳:佳人,指湘夫人。期:期約。張:陳設。(8)萃:集。鳥本當集在木上,反說在水草中。(9)罾(zēng):魚網。罾原當在水中,反說在木上,比喻所愿不得,失其應處之所。(10)沅:即沅水,在今湖南省。醴:同“澧”(lǐ),即澧水,在今湖南省,流入洞庭湖。茝:白芷,一種香草。(11)公子:指湘夫人。古代貴族稱公族,貴族子女不分姓別,都可稱“公子”。(12)荒忽:不分明的樣子。(13)潺湲:水流的樣子。(14)麋:獸名,似鹿。(15)水裔:水邊。此名意謂蛟本當在深淵而在水邊。比喻所處失常。(16)皋:水邊高地。(17)澨(shì):水邊。(18)騰駕:駕著馬車奔騰飛馳。偕逝:同往。(19)葺:編草蓋房子。蓋:指屋頂。(20)蓀壁:用蓀草飾壁。蓀(sūn):一種香草。紫:紫貝。壇:中庭。(21)椒:一種科香木。(22)棟:屋棟,屋脊柱。橑:屋椽。(23)辛夷:木名,初春升花。楣:門上橫梁。藥:白芷。(24)罔:通“網”,作結解。薜荔;一種香草,緣木而生。帷:帷帳。(25)擗;析開。蕙:一種香草。櫋(mián)櫋:作“幔”講,帳頂。(26)鎮:鎮壓坐席之物。(27)疏:分疏,分陳。石蘭:一種香草。(28)繚:纏繞。杜衡:一種香草。(29)合:合聚。百草:指眾芳草。實:充實。(30)馨:能夠遠聞的香。廡(wǔ):廊(31)九嶷(yí):山名,傳說中舜的葬地,在湘水南。這里指九嶷山神。繽:盛多的樣子。(32)靈:神。如云:形容眾多。(33)袂(mèi):衣袖。(34)褋(dié):外衣。(35)汀:水中或水邊的平地。杜若:一種香草。(36)遠者:指湘夫人。(37)驟得:數得,屢得。(38)逍遙:游玩。容與:悠閑的樣子。
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