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    菊花賞析


    菊花,不象牡丹那樣富麗,也沒有蘭花那樣名貴,但作為傲霜之花,它一直受人偏愛。有人贊美它堅強的品格,有人欣賞它高潔的氣質,而元稹的這首詠菊詩,則別出新意地道出了他愛菊的原因。 詠菊,一般要說說菊花的可愛。但詩人既沒列舉“金鉤掛月”之類的形容詞,也未描繪爭芳斗艷的景象。而是用了一個比喻──“秋絲繞舍似陶家”。一叢叢菊花圍繞著房屋開放,好似到了陶淵明的家。秋叢,即叢叢的秋菊。東晉陶淵明最愛菊,家中遍植菊花。“采菊東籬下,悠然見南山”(《飲酒》),是他的名句。這里將植菊的地方比作“陶家”,秋菊滿院盛開的景象便不難想象。如此美好的菊景怎能不令人陶醉?故詩人“遍繞籬邊日漸斜”,完全被眼前的菊花所吸引,專心致志地繞籬觀賞,以至于太陽西斜都不知道。“遍繞”、“日斜”,把詩人賞菊入迷,留連忘返的情景真切地表現出來,渲染了愛菊的氣氛。 詩人為什么如此著迷地偏愛菊花呢?三、四兩句說明喜愛菊花的原因:“不是花中偏愛菊,此花開盡更無花”。菊花在百花之中是最后凋謝的,一旦菊花謝盡,便無花景可賞,人們愛花之情自然都集中到菊花上來。因此,作為后凋者,它得天獨厚地受人珍愛。詩人從菊花在四季中謝得最晚這一自然現象,引出深微的道理,回答了愛菊的原因,表達了詩人特殊的愛菊之情。這其中當然也含有對菊花歷盡風霜而后凋的堅貞品格的贊美。 這首詩從詠菊這一平常的題材,發掘出不平常的詩意,給人以新的啟發,顯得新穎自然,不落俗套。在寫作上,筆法也很巧妙。前兩句寫賞菊的實景,渲染愛菊的氣氛作為鋪墊;第三句是過渡,筆鋒一頓,迭宕有致,最后吟出生花妙句,進一步開拓美的境界,增強了這首小詩的藝術感染力。 (閻昭典)

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