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    宿桐廬江寄廣陵舊游賞析


      孟浩然詩鑒賞  這首詩在意境上顯得清寂或清峭,情緒上則帶著比較重的孤獨感。詩題點明是乘舟停宿桐廬江的時候,懷念揚州(即廣陵)友人之作。  桐廬江即桐江,在今浙江省境內,為錢塘江的上游。詩人孤舟停泊在這里,江邊月夜,懷念著廣陵(今江蘇省揚州市)的朋友們。  黃昏的薄霧籠罩著四野,山色已經暗淡了。曠野的黃昏景色,本來就容易逗起孤客的愁緒,這時又聽到猿猴凄切的鳴叫。在“山暝聽猿”之后加上一個“愁”字,非常簡練,是詩人的深切的感受,為下文埋下伏筆。  因為夜幕降臨,遠山看不見了,江水反而在粼粼閃光。山谷間的河流,本來就湍急,在夜晚,兩岸青山黑魆魆的影子,夾著江中的流水,使人感到江水在急速流駛。不說“夜急流”,而說“急夜流”,因為前者只是客觀地說明了夜間江水的流速;用后者詩人的主觀感情也注入到了景色之中,感到夜晚的滄江特別湍急,心事也隨之潮涌。  野曠無人,猿聲也停止了。一切在沉寂之中,只有兩邊岸上的樹葉被風吹得悉悉索索地發響,使人心情孤寂而煩亂。夜色和客愁一同向詩人緊壓過來。這時,月亮出來了,皎潔的月亮,獨照在江邊停泊的孤舟上,深夜的寥廓的天宇之下,除了一葉孤舟,什么也看不到。這一片清冷的月光,使視線更加狹小,心情更加緊縮,蘊蓄的感情也更加集中。  詩人寫這些景色,如同信手拈來,毫不雕琢,卻又生動逼真。內心情緒隨著層次分明的景色而浮動,這不能不令人驚嘆詩人的駕馭文字的高度技巧。  后四句寫愁的具體內容。  建德,縣名,為現今浙江省建德縣,在桐江上游。  “非吾土”三字,出自王粲《登樓賦》。建安詩人王粲避亂到荊州,在當陽(今湖北省當陽縣)城樓作了這篇賦,其中說到:“雖信美而非吾土兮,曾何足以少留。”“非吾土”,意思是“不是我的家鄉”,詩人借用“非吾土”三字,就概括了全句的內容,表達孤舟漂泊的傷感。建德既無他立足之處,就遙念廣陵還有朋友,曾經有過歡樂的聚會,至少比在這里孤泊荒江要好,因此就“維揚憶舊游”。《尚書禹貢》有一句:  “淮海維揚州”, 意思是淮海一帶就是揚州。后用“維揚”代替了揚州。“舊游”是指過去的朋友。這句詩是倒裝句法,應該是“憶揚州舊游”,為了適應律詩的格律和對偶而倒置。  古代揚州幅員廣闊,東邊一直抵達大海之濱,因此它位置在海的西岸。桐廬江下游稱錢塘江,而后通過運河可達揚州。“還將兩行淚,遙寄海西頭”,是對江水而寄情。在孤寂的處境中,感懷身世,愴然淚下。  詩人希望這種痛苦的心情被朋友所了解,以求得心靈的慰藉,所以憑借著江水的千里通波,把眼淚遠遠寄去,表達出感情的深厚和想念的殷切。

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